Predictors and prevalence of Dental Caries and Trauma among Institutionalized and non-institutionalized street children in Ibadan.
Background: Street children can be categorized into: children of the street, children on the street, children who are part of a street family, and those in institutionalized care such as the Juvenile correctional home. Thousands of children roam the streets without having a place to sleep while others engage in petty crimes or beg in order to survive thereby increasing the number of children raised in the juvenile home system. Urbanization is increasing the number of street children in most regions of the world especially in many African cities which may be due to poverty and unemployment status of many parents.
Aim: This study was aimed at determining the predictors and prevalence of dental caries and trauma among institutionalized (those in juvenile correctional home) and non-institutionalized street children in Ibadan.
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of dental caries and trauma among institutionalized and non-institutionalized street children in Ibadan.
It is also to identify the predictors of dental caries and trauma among institutionalized and non-institutionalized street children in Ibadan.
Study design: Cross-sectional study
Setting: Motor parks and the Juvenile correctional home in Ibadan.
Materials and Methods: The study was carried out among institutionalized (juvenile correctional home) and non-institutionalized street children. Cluster sampling technique was used in the selection of children for this study. Children were selected from the juvenile correctional home and four major motor parks in Ibadan metropolis
Results: One hundred and thirty eight children participated in this study. Male constituted 65.9% while female was 34.1%. Thirty five (25.4%) are from the juvenile correctional home (institutionalized street children) while 103 (74.6%) are from the streets. The prevalence of dental caries among the children generally was 29.0%, while that of dental trauma was 18.8%.
Conclusion: The significant predictors of dental caries were gender, tooth hypoplasia and the presence of visible plaque on the anterior teeth while those of dental trauma were lip competence, substance use, age and gender.
Keywords: Street children, Juvenile home, Caries, Trauma